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Journal Archive

Platinum Metals Rev., 1977, 21, (2), 69

NEW PATENTS: April 1977

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METALS AND ALLOYS

Solution Hardened Alloys Containing Palladium

u.s. energy research&development administration U.S. Patent 3,976,479

Solution hardened alloys of Cu, for example, containing equal atomic percentages of Pd and Al are formed by using at least two solutes which form associated solute pairs in the solvent metal lattice.

Ruthenium Powder Alloy

general motors corp. U.S. Patent 3,977,841

Ductile Ru alloys are prepared by mixing 70−80% Ru powder with 20−30% prealloyed powder (containing Co, Ni, Cr, W and Si), both powders being of less than 200 mesh size, pressing at 35,000–50,000 psi, and sintering in dry and/or in a vacuum, at 2150−2250°F for 30–45 min.

Ruthenium Alloy for Use in Composite Seals

w. h. fengler U.S. Patent 3,991,229

A base metal, such as the Al or Fe housing of a rotary or reciprocating-piston I.C.E. and a sealing member for its pistons or rotor are coated with a layer of a wear resistant alloy such as Ru-W.

ELECTRODEPOSITION AND SURFACE COATINGS

Platinum-Rhodium Containing High Temperature Alloy Coating

chromalloy american corp. British Patent 1,463,447

The heat resistance of Ni- and/or Co-based alloys is improved by cleaning the surface of the alloy, thermally diffusing first and second coatings of Rh and Pt respectively on to the alloy surface and pack-aluminising the alloy.

Electroless Metal Plating

imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 1,463,803

A substrate is exposed to sensitising radiation when coated with a H2O soluble quaternised bipyridilium compound dissolved or dispersed in a H2O permeable film forming matrix, activated by contact with a solution of PdCl2 and HCl, contacted with an aqueous solution of a reducing agent other than formaldehyde solution and contacted with an aqueous electroless metal such as Co plating bath.

Electrical Heating Unit with a Protective Overglaze

corning glass works U.S. Patent 3,974,360

An integral element type heating unit consists of a Pt film bonded to a supporting ceramic plate. The platinum film element is electrically stabilised and physically protected by a PbTiO3 overglaze.

Titanium/Silver/Palladium Metallisation System

motorola inc. U.S. Patent 3,978,517

A glass encapsulated double-plug diode has a semiconductor substrate on which are disposed successive layers of Ti, Ag and Pd.

Coating Noble Metals on Bonding Tools

tribotech U.S. Patent 3,986,653

Os, Ru and/or their alloys are electrodeposited from their alkali metal salts in a non-aqueous solvent, such as methanol or DMF on to the tips of bonding tools. The tips may also optionally be coated with a chemically bonded Si layer on top of the metal layer.

Ruthenium Coated Oxide Supports

exxon research and engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,990,998

The high surface area, multilayered oxide supports with a Ru coating have the composition Ru-MgO-MgAl2O4-MgAl2O4 + Mg2SiO4-Core. The products are used in the treatment of waste gases especially I.C.E. exhaust gases.

Thallium Palladate Anode Coating

c. conradty U.S. Patent 3,991,158

TlPd3O4 for use as a coating layer for metal anodes is prepared by heating TlNO3 to 350°C to give Tl2O3 and NO and NO2, heating the Tl2O3 to 500°C to give Tl2O and O2 and adding PdO to the Tl2O to give TlPd3O4.

Noble Metal Coated Lamp Current Conductors

u.s. phillips corp. U.S. Patent 3,991,337

The outer Mo current conductors of electric lamps with quartz glass lamp envelopes and pinched seals have a corrosion metal coating of Pt, Pd, Au or Ir on a primer layer of Ni or Cu.

LABORATORY APPARATUS AND TECHNIQUE

Oxygen Sensor

nissan motor co. British Patent 1,462,336

A sensor for use in an I.C.E. exhaust system has a cylindrical solid O2-ion electrolyte which is a ceramic composed of ZrO2 and CaO whose inner and outer surfaces are coated with Pt.

Oxygen Sensors

robert bosch g.m.b.h. British Patent 1,462,639

An electrochemical sensor for determining the O2 content of I.C.E. exhaust has an O2 concentration cell with an ion conducting solid electrolyte in the form of a tube which is closed at one end and on the outer surface of which is located an electron conducting layer for catalysing the attainment of gas equilibrium. The electron conducting layer is formed of Pt, Pd or Ir (alloy) and may have additional refractory metal such as Ag or Au layers.

JOINING

Heat Resistant Sealing Materials

national research development corp. British Patent 1,455,428

A new heat resistant material for sealing bodies together in TV screens consists of 5−40% Ca oxide, 35−70% SiO2, 9−30% MgO2 and 3−30% Al2O3. Several examples illustrate the bonding of a Pt disc, Pt or Pt-Rh wires or Pt alloy discs to Al2O3 or ZrO2, in thermocouple production.

Metallisation Process for Bonding a Semiconductor Die to Terminals

motorola inc. U.S. Patent 3,987,217

A metallisation system for metallurgically bonding a semiconductor die to metallic conducting slugs and terminals uses a combination of Pd, Al and Sn, for bonding to Mo.

HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS

Dehydroxylation of Aminoglycosides

takeda chemical industries ltd. British Patent 1,460,039

New deoxyaminoglycoside antibiotics may be prepared by reduction of intermediate halogenated compounds using Pt group metal catalysts.

Stabilised Ruthenium Catalysts

johnson matthey&co. ltd. British Patent 1,460,273

A catalyst is formed by a mixed oxide having one of the empirical formulae: RuO2.xTiO2; RuO2.xZrO2; RuO2.xHfO2; RuO2.xNb2O5 and RuO2.xBi2O3 where x>1. The catalyst is used in the purification of I.C.E. exhaust gases.

High Severity Reforming Process with a Platinum-Iridium Catalyst

exxon research and engineering co. British Patents 1,461,946–7

A naphtha feedstock having a Watson characterisation factor of 11.4–12.2 and H2 are contacted with a catalyst comprising 0.15−0.75% Pt, 0.15−0.45% Ir and 0.3−2% halogen. The catalyst is supported on Al2O3.

Purifying Hydroquinone

goodyear tyre and rubber co. British Patent 1,464,072

Photographic grade hydroquinone is prepared by treating a solution of technical grade hydroquinone in the presence of a Pd catalyst with H2 while the solution is at a pH of 3–6.

Platinum Containing Molecular Sieve Catalyst

johnson matthey&co. ltd. U.S. Patent 3,979,329

A selective molecular sieve catalyst is prepared by treating furfuryl alcohol with an aqueous solution of chloroplatinic acid and warming the mixture to initiate polymerisation of the alcohol, drying the polymer by heating under N2 and curing by heating to 200°C for 16 h and carbonising the polymer by heating to 650°C for 4 h. Similar catalysts can be prepared, using Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu, and all catalysts are very selective for hydrogenation reactions.

Multimetallic Conversion Catalyst Containing a Noble Metal

universal oil products co. U.S. Patent 3,986,948

A catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion reactions is a porous carrier material on which is deposited 0.01−2.0% Pt or Pd, 0.01−2.0% Rh, 0.01−5.0% Sn, 0.1−3.5% halogen and 0.01−1.0% S. The Pt or Pd, Rh and Sn are uniformly dispersed throughout the carrier and the noble metals are in the form of their sulphides.

Platinum Group Dehydrogenation Catalyst for Catechol Production

sun ventures inc. U.S. Patent 3,987,112

In a 4-stage process for the production of catechol from a mixture of cyclohexanol/cyclohexanone the fourth step is a dehydrogenation process carried out in the presence of a catalyst which is Pd, Pt, Ru, Os, Ir or Rh.

Platinum Group Catalyst for Self-Cleaning Oven Coatings

imperial chemical industries ltd. U.S. Patent 3,988,514

A self-cleaning catalytic coating for cooking oven walls consists of a sintered matrix of hard catalyst particles, of Pt group, Cu, V, Bi, Mo, Mn, Fe, Ni, or others, their mixtures, or their oxides, and binder particles.

Platinum Group Metal Catalyst for Decomposition of Carbohydrate Wastes

u.s. energy research&development administration U.S. Patent 3,989,480

Carbohydrate waste materials are decomposed to form a gaseous fuel product by contacting with a metal chosen from Rh, Ir, Pd, Pt, Ni, Co or Cu-Ni or Ni-Fe-Cr alloys and heating in the absence of H2O.

Crosslinked Platinum Catalyst-Inhibitor

dow corning corp. U.S. Patent 3,989,666

The composition is prepared by heating in a closed system for 10–30 h, at 50−90°C a mixture of a siloxane, an acetylenic alcohol and a Pt catalyst, followed by removal of unreacted alcohol. When combined with a vinyl containing siloxane polymer it retards the actions of Si-bonded H atoms with aliphatic unsaturation catalysed by Pt.

Rhodium Catalyst for Propionic Acid Production

monsanto co. U.S. Patent 3,989,747

A one step process for propionic acid production involves the reaction of C2H4 with CO and H2O at mild pressure in the presence of a Rh catalyst and a bromide promoter.

Multiple Group VIII Metal Containing Catalyst

ste. francaise des produits pour catalyse French Appl. 2,287,496

The catalyst, for hydrocarbon conversion processes, has a support, 0.005−2.0% Pt, 0.005−1.0% of a metal chosen from Ir, Rh and Ru, 0.05−0.8% Co, 0.005−1.0% of at least one metal chosen from Cu, Mn, Ag and Au and 0.1−10.0% halide.

HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS

Producing Triols and Diols

chevron research co. British Patent 1,463,994

Triethanolmethane and 3-methyl-1,5-pentanediol are produced by contacting a mixture of 3-methylene-1,5-pentanediol and 3-methyl-2-pentene-1,5-diol with a homogeneous Rh catalyst in the presence of CO at 25–5000 psig and H2 at 50–1000 psig, at 75−250°C.

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY

Restoring the Activity of a Reforming Catalyst

british gas corp. British Patent 1,463,661

A mixture of steam and the vapour of an aliphatic alcohol is passed over a deactivated steam reforming catalyst, such as a Ru-Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. The mixture is preheated prior to contact with the catalyst to at least 350°C such that the catalyst bed temperature is maintained by the reactions at 400−600°C.

Hollow Spheres for Encapsulating Precious Metals

canadian patents&development ltd. U.S. Patent 3,975,194

Microballoons which can incorporate small particles of Pt, Ag or Au, for jewellery purposes, or can be used to form hollow Pt/Al2O3 catalyst beads, are prepared by uniformly dispersing a soluble film-forming solid into a core solvent, shaping this mixture while still in the molten state, cooling to solidify as a shaped blend, slowly transforming the solid cone into a gas and removing and recovering the microballoons which have an inner sponge lining. The metal particles can be dispersed in the core while it is liquid and will migrate to form part of the shell.

Noble Metal Halides as Colour Stabilisers

monsanto co. U.S. Patent 3,975,408

The colour stability of refined dicarboxylic acid anhydrides, such as maleic anhydride, is improved by the addition of 0.01–1,000 ppm of a halide of Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir or Pt.

Platinum, Silver and Palladium Reaction Rate Modifiers for Hydrogen Production

u.s. secretary of the navy U.S. Patent 3,977,990

H2 gas evolution rates and the gas temperature of hydrogen generating solid compositions are modified by the addition of small amounts of various compounds including PtO2, Pd, Ag2CO3, PdCl2.

Refining Platinum Group Metals

matthey rustenburg refiners (pty) ltd. U.S. Patent 3,979,207

The separation and purification of platinum group metals, especially mixtures of Rh, Pt and Ir, which are present as salts in aqueous solution is achieved by adjusting the pH, as necessary, to provide an acidic solution, contacting this with an oxidising agent sufficient to oxidise all Ir present to Ir(IV), then contacting the solution with a N2-containing organic compound (chosen from secondary and tertiary amines and quaternary ammonium compounds), removing an organic phase which contains all the Pt and Ir present, removing the Ir from this phase by contacting with an aqueous solution of a reducing agent and removing the Pt remaining in the organic phase with an aqueous stripping solution.

Recovery of Noble Metals from Car Exhaust Catalysts

johnson matthey&co. ltd. U.S. Patent 3,985,854

Pt, Rh and other precious metals are recovered from exhaust gas catalysts, which are preferably crushed, powdered or broken, by reacting them with an acid medium having oxidising properties to leach out the metals. The leaching step can be preceded by a reduction step.

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

Light Emitting Display Device

tokyo shibaura electric co. ltd. British Patent 1,455,195

The device has an electric insulation base plate bearing printed conductive layers and conductive light reflectors of which one is made of one metal from the group Pt, Ag, Au, Ni and Al and the other is made from one metal of the above group but having a different colour.

Resistance Composition

c.t.s. corp. British Patent 1,462,526

An electrical resistance composition comprises a mixture of glass particles, a conductive phase consisting of RuO2 and Ir, the Ir being present as an organometallic compound in solution, and a liquid carrier.

Silver-Palladium Film with Improved Adhesion

johnson matthey&co. ltd. German Offen. 2,616,060

A composite film, such as a Ag-Pd and Bi oxide thick film for a circuit, is obtained by using the molten oxide constituent to hold particles of the metal in place as a conducting layer.

MEDICAL USES

Determining the Perfusion Efficiency Factor of Animal Tissue

l. eschweiler&co. British Patent 1,461,345

The rate of perfusion of an indicator substance is percutaneously measured in the tissue at a specified locus, and the indicator concentration is simultaneously measured at the same locus. Signals are obtained in dependence on the measurements and the signals are combined to obtain a composite signal corresponding to the factor. The apparatus used includes Ag/AgCl sensors and Pt electrodes.

Palladium Dental Alloys

fa. dr. th. wieland German Offen. 2,523,971

Pd alloys which are readily joined to porcelain for dental purposes contain 20−45% Ag, 0.1−10% of at least one hardening additive such as Fe, Co or Ni, 50−80% Pd and 0.1−0.5% Ti. The presence of Pd increases the adherence to porcelain and colour reproduction.

Reduced Gold Dental Alloy

johnson matthey&co. ltd. Dutch Appl. 76.02206

An alloy for use in restorative dental treatment contains 45−62% Pd, 25−42% Au, 5−22% Ag, up to 5% Ga, up to 2% In and up to 1% Sn.

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