Platinum Metals Rev., 1980, 24, (1), 25
Electrodeposited Ruthenium Contacts for Electronic Applications
Considerable advances have been made in recent years in the improvement of electroplating processes and in the selection of metals for deposition to meet design and economic requirements in the electronics industry. A review of progress in this field by R. G. Baker of Bell Laboratories and R. Sard of Oxy Metal Industries (Plating and Surface Finishing, 1979, 66, (8), 36–40) draws attention to the potential advantages of ruthenium as an electrodeposit where low and stable values of contact resistance are required in electronic systems.
As well as providing a significant reduction in cost as compared to gold for an equal thickness of deposit, ruthenium has an extremely thin and adherent film of oxide which not only prevents polymer formation in operation but possesses a low contact resistance virtually the same as the parent metal. The system is resistant to corrosion by the media normally used for testing and those met within service. It also shows good resistance to wear.
Several electrolytes are now available for the deposition of ruthenium, and work is proceeding to improve their stability and current efficiency in production conditions.