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Journal Archive

Platinum Metals Rev., 1981, 25, (1), 46

doi:10.1595/147106710x504923

NEW PATENTS: January 1981

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ELECTROCHEMISTRY


Platinum Coated Gas Turbine Igniters


johnson matthey & co. ltd. British Patent 1,572,339

Electrode erosion and/or corrosion is avoided when the electrode working surfaces of the ignitor are made from a host material in which Co, Ni and/or W predominates and is alloyed with one or more platinum group metals (except Os).

ELECTRODEPOSITION AND SURFACE COATINGS


Palladium Chemical Plating Bath


mine safety appliances co. British Appl. 2,040,316 A

A bath for the chemical (electroless) deposition of Pd contains a divalent Pd salt, NH3 or an amine and a tertiary amine borane, optionally with an organic stabiliser. A hard Pd alloy film is obtained containing 1−3% each of amorphous B and PdH0.706. The substrate is preferably Ni.

Platinum Group Metal Thermal Barriers


johnson matthey & co. ltd. British Appl. 2,041,246 A

Coatings on Ni, Co or Fe-based superalloys, refractory alloys or refractory metals include a protective layer of one or more platinum group metal and a refractory metal oxide such as Al, Zn, Ti.

Activating Polymeric Substrates Prior to Electroless Plating


oxy metal industries corp. U.S. Patent 4,204,013

An accelerating solution containing substituted alkyl amine, is used on polymeric substrates activated with acidic Sn-Pd complexes to provide total metal coverage by subsequent electroless plating.

Platinum Plating


a. g. kozlov and n. a. nerozin Russian Patent 732,412

For plating Ti, the bath preferably contains 15 g/l Pt as a Pt diaminodinitrite, 100 g/l NH4NO3, 10 g/l NaNO2, NH3 to pH 7.5, and the reaction is carried out at a current density of 5–12A/dm2 and 70−80°C.

LABORATORY APPARATUS AND TECHNIQUE


Monitoring the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Waste Water


siemens a.g. British Patent 1,576,984

Water is caused to flow through an electrolytic cell where any heavy metals present are deposited onto a platinum group metal electrode. The water is periodically replaced with an electrolyte and the cell current reversed until complete dissolution of the heavy metals is obtained. The current used for the dissolution indicates the amount of heavy metals present in the waste water.

Detecting the Presence of Water in Oil


alco standard corp. British Appl. 2,042,737 A

A temperature sensitive resistor, for example a Pt wire wound on a ceramic former, immersed in oil carries a current controlled by a transistor to keep the transistor at a constant temperature above 100°C. Any H2O in the oil will vaporise and cool the resistor, thus lowering its resistance and triggering an alarm system.

Leak Detector


mylhurst ltd. European Appl. 13,466

Pt electrode tips may be used in a device for detecting the leakage of a cryogenic liquid.

Hydrogen Separation


e. f. hill European Appl. 15,428

H2 is separated from gas streams by diffusion through a heated membrane of a b.c.c. Ti-Zr alloy, the faces of which have been cleaned and Pd coated.

Oxygen Sensor Construction


nissan motor co. ltd. U.S. Patent 4,207,159

A new form of sensor has a lanthanide-stabilised zirconia or other oxide electrolyte with a porous reference electrode of Au or Ag on one side and a platinum group metal (or alloy) catalytic electrode on the other.

HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS


Activation of Vitreous Material


b.f.g. glassgroup British Patent 1,574,055

H2 fixation may be achieved on vitreous materials, without the use of organosilane coupling agents, if H2 has been conditioned by hot contact with Pt or Pd or another catalytic metal prior to contact with the vitreous substrate.

Biological Material Conversion to Fuels


mobil oil corp. British Appl. 2,039,943 A

Plant or animal substances with a suitable hydrocarbon ratio are converted to liquid fuels at an elevated temperature in the presence of a zeolite which may be ion exchanged with Pd, a lanthanide metal or another metal.

Process for Treating Ammonia Containing Waste Water


osaka gas co. British Appl. 2,043,045 A

Waste water is subjected to wet oxidation, at a temperature between 100 and 370°C, in the presence of a catalyst, which may be supported Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru or Au.

Shell Boilers


johnson matthey & co. ltd. British Appl. 2,043,851 A

In shell boilers of specified design, at least a part of any unburned fuel leaving the combustion chamber undergoes catalytic combustion. The catalyst is preferably a ceramic or metal support coated with a layer of refractory metal oxide on which is deposited an active material selected from Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir and Ru, and alloys of these metals with each other and with one or more base metals.

Iridium and Rhodium Hydrogenation and Hydroformylation Catalysts


conoco inc. U.S. Patent 4,198,353

Air stable, heterogeneous Rh and Ir trihalide polymer-bound catalysts have high levels of activity for the conversion of olefins to aldehydes and are easily recovered from the reaction mixture.

Heater for Poultices and Disposable Pocket Heaters


a. fujiwara U.S. Patent 4,205,957

Known heaters use oxidisable metal powders, for example, of Fe, Zn, etc. The efficiency of the heating powders is now increased by adding Pt, Pd, Rh or Ag oxidation catalysts to the powders. The catalysts, preferably, have a water-repellant coating of fatty acid or metallic soap.

Platinum-Palladium-Manganese Oxide Ozone Decomposition Catalyst


minnesota mining & manufacturing co. U.S. Patent 4,206,083

Co-precipitation of Pt, Pd and Mn oxide on a ceramic support gives an efficient catalyst for the decomposition of ozone, for example in airplane cabins.

Smoke Control for Diesels


johnson matthey & co. ltd. French Appl. 2,430,787

Smoke-forming particles entrained in diesel or I.C.E. exhaust gases are oxidised in a catalyst unit where turbulence is created and the flow of gases directly through the unit is prevented. The catalyst is a platinum group metal or metals, an alloy or a mixture of these metals supported on ceramic, metallic wire or mesh, or corrugated metal sheet.

Platinum Metal Dealkylation Catalyst


institut francais du petrole French Appl. 2,434,131

A catalyst for the steam dealkylation of toluene, for example, contains 0.1−2% of Ru, Rh, Pd and/or Os, 0.05 0.8% Re and 0.01−5% of Li, Na, K, Rb or Cs.

HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS


Oxidation Using Ruthenate


johnson matthey & co. ltd. European Appl. 13,797

Organic substrates are oxidised by adding them to an aqueous solution containing ruthenate ions as catalyst in the presence of an oxidising agent such as an aqueous alkaline persulphate solution. The catalyst is produced in situ by adding a Ru trihalide to an aqueous solution of the oxidising agent.

Olefin Hydration


university of sheffield and bp chemicals ltd. European Appl. 17,424

Ethanol is formed by bubbling ethylene through an aqueous solution of mercuric acetate containing a catalyst which is preferably [Rh2(C5Me5)2(OH)3]Cl.xH2O.

Platinum Hydroformylation Catalyst for Aldehyde Production


shell oil co. U.S. Patent 4,198,352

Internal olefins are hydroformylated to linear aldehydes by contact with H2 and CO over a catalyst consisting of a ligand-stabilised ionic compound of formula PtCe(CO).(Ligand)2X, complexed with modifying Sm, Zn or Ge halides. The Pt compound is typically PtCe2(PPh3)2.

Rhodium Carbonyl Sulphur Cluster Complexes


union carbide corp. U.S. Patent 4,199,520

A new catalyst for the manufacture of polyhydric alcohols from synthesis gas is a Rh carbonyl cluster complex having an anion of formula {Rh17S2(CO)32}−3. The cation may be ammonium, tris (triorgano phosphine) iminium or a Group IA or IIA metal.

Hydroformylation Co-catalysts


johnson matthey & co. ltd. U.S. Patents 4,200,591/2

Straight chain aldehydes are produced from internal olefins by catalytic hydroformylation in the presence of a Rh complex, such as RhH(CO)(PPh3)3, in solution in the presence of a co-catalyst. In U.S. Patent 4,200,591 the co-catalyst is heterogeneous and consists of Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir or Ru on a suitable support. In U.S. Patent 4,200,592 a homogeneous co-catalyst consisting of a co-ordination compound of Pt, Pd, Ru, Cr, Mo, W, Fe or Co, such as Pd(acac)2 is used.

FUEL CELLS


Platinum-Vanadium Fuel Cell Catalysts


united technologies corp. U.S. Patent 4,202,934

An alloy of a platinum group metal (Pt is used in all examples) with V produces high-surface-area catalysts for fuel cell cathodes. The alloy is prepared by reacting a V compound with Na dithionite to form a sol of a finely divided V sulphite complex and then reacting Pt particles with the complex.

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY


Sulphur Trioxide Reduction


westinghouse electric corp. British Patent 1,575,444

More efficient use of electricity may be obtained if power produced in off-peak periods is used to decompose water. Most of the processes use as one step the decomposition of SO3. This decomposition is now achieved by passing gaseous SO3 over a sulphuric acid contact catalyst, which may be Pt, at a temperature between 750 and 1000°C, and at a high space velocity.

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING


Hydrogen Storage


johnson matthey & co. ltd. British Patent 1,572,796

An intermetallic H2 storage material, such as LaNi5, TiFe and Mg2Ni is held in a chamber having a H2 permeable Pd or Pd alloy, such as a 80% Pd−20% Ag membrane. The chamber preferably, acts as a heat exchanger and has external heating elements and/or fluid filled heat exchange tubes.

Producing Metallic Patterns on Substrates


western electric co. inc. British Patent 1,573,241

A “colloidophobic” material such as PTFE containing Pt, Pd, Ag, or the like is deposited on the surface of a non-conductor in the required pattern and used as a catalyst for depositing Pd and Cu by an electroless plating method.

Magnetic Collectors


united kingdom atomic energy authority British Appl. 2,042,274 A

Ferromagnetic particles used in a collector for removing particles from liquids in nuclear fuel reprocessing are encased in an acid resistant metal, such as stainless steel, Pt, Pd or Au. In a preferred arrangement the particles are encapsulated between two metal tubular sheets.

Magnetic Material


agence nationale de valorisation de la recherche (anvar)

French Appl. 2,433,483

A new magnetic material for audio and video recording media is a Cr-Rh oxide solid solution Cr1−xRhxO2, where x is preferably about 0.1.

I.C. Engine


johnson matthey & co. ltd. German Offen. 3,000,497

In an I.C.E. of improved efficiency each cylinder is provided with a fuel oxidation catalytic device which is a block of metal, preferably Ni or Co or alloys thereof, pierced with a multiplicity of channels. The internal surfaces of the channels are coated with a platinum group metal catalyst.

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