Platinum Metals Rev., 1959, 3, (2), 73
NEW PATENTS: April 1959
Manufacture of Sulphanilamide
f. hoffmann-la roche & co. a.g. British Patent 804,036
A noble metal hydrogenation catalyst is used in a process for the manufacture of 5-sulphanilamido-3,4-dimethyl-isoxazole by reduction of P, P1 [bis [3,4-dimethyl-isoxazolyl-(5)]-amino-sulphonyl]-azobenzene in a highly acidic liquid medium. The catalyst may be Pd-C or PtO2.
united kingdom atomic energy authority British Patent 804,062
Uranium salts of deuterated higher aliphatic acids are made by treating a uranium salt of a higher aliphatic acid with deuterium in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, e.g. Pt.
engelhard industries inc. British Patent 804,404
A high resistivity high strength alloy suitable for electric resistance wires consists of 20–62% Pd (preferably 30–50%), 28–70% Au and more than 5% up to 18% Fe (preferably 7–12%). The resistivity of the heat-aged alloy is 450–1200 ohms/mil foot. Pt or Rh (up to 10%) may be included.
New Indole Derivatives
soc. des usines chimiques rhone-poulenc British Patent 804,786
Adam’s PtO2 is used as catalyst in a process involving catalytic hydrogenation for the manufacture of specified indole derivatives.
f. hoffmann-la roche & co. a.g. British Patent 804,788
A catalyst is composed of Pd sponge deposited on a substrate of a mixture of Zn(OH)2 and Fe(OH)3 and/or ZnCO3 and FeCO3 in the ratio 2–9 gram atoms of Pd to 1 of Zn and 1 of Fe. The catalyst is made by treating an aqueous solution of the component ions with an alkaline material and a reducing agent.
Production of Motor Gasoline
the british petroleum co. ltd. British Patent 805,045
A high octane gasoline is made by thermally reforming a mixture of a light straight-run gasoline and a “platinum reformate”.
Purification of Benzene
the british petroleum co. ltd. British Patent 805,050
Benzene is separated from mixtures of benzene and non-aromatic hydrocarbons which form azeotropes with the benzene by catalytically reforming the mixture in the presence of hydrogen at 850–1050°F and pressure of 50 to 1000 p.s.i.g. followed by fractional distillation of the product to obtain a benzene fraction. A Pt-Al2O3 catalyst is used.
Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide
columbia-southern chemical corp. British Patent 805,101
Hydrogen peroxide is prepared by successively hydrogenating a quinone in a solvent medium and in the presence of a catalyst, e.g. Pd-Al2O3, oxidising the product to regenerate the quinone and generate H2O2, extracting the peroxide at a temperature below the hydrogenation temperature and heating the solvent from the extraction to the hydrogenation temperature.
Hydroforming of Naphthas
esso research & engineering co. British Patent 805,111
A gasoline fraction is produced by hydroforming a naphtha fraction in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst and passing the total effluent without cooling to a dealkylation zone, where it is heated, the total normally liquid product recovered thereby having a greater vol.% of distillate boiling at 230°F than could be obtained from the effluent from the hydroforming zone. A Pt hydroforming catalyst is used.
Catalytic Reduction of Aromatic Dinitro Compounds
general aniline & film corp. British Patent 805,249
Reference is made to the use of Pt group metal catalysts, preferably Pd or Pt, supported or unsupported, in a novel process for the catalytic hydrogen reduction of aromatic dinitro compounds to form the corresponding diamines.
the dow chemical co. British Patent 805,503
A fluorination catalyst is made by saturating a porous activated γ-Al2O3 in an aqueous solution of a halide of, inter alia, Pd to incorporate 0.1–10% by weight based on the metal of the halide, and then passing a stream of anhydrous gaseous HF into contact with the Al2O3 until it becomes dry.
Preparation of Liquid Hydrocarbon Mixtures
n.v. de bataafsche petroleum maatschappij British Patent 805,530
Liquid hydrocarbon mixtures for use in motor fuels are produced by catalytically reforming a straight-run gasoline or fraction thereof with a Pt catalyst on an acidic carrier and distilling the reformate to separate one or more heavy fractions boiling above 160°C at least one of which is thermally reformed. A catalyst containing 0.76% Pt, 0.22% Cl and 0.38% F, all by wt. on an Al2O3 support is referred to.
Phosphate Derivatives of Steroids
merck & co. inc. British Patent 805,828
Phosphate derivatives of steroids of given general formula are hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst and a tertiary amine to form the corresponding tertiary amine salt of 3-ethylene-deoxy-11-(keto or β-hydroxy)-Δ5-pregnene-17α,21-diol-20-one-21-phosphate. The catalyst used is pre-reduced PtO2.
Preparation of Cyclopentene
esso research & engineering co. British Patent 805,865
Cyclopentene is prepared by hydrogenating cyclopentadiene dimer in the presence of a PtO2 catalyst at 25–150°C to give dihydro-dicyclo-pentadiene and cracking the latter at 350–600°C. Hydrogen pressure used is 50–200 p.s.i.g.
Preparation of Sulphur Oxyfluorides
e. i. du pont de nemours & co. British Patent 805,874
A reactor tube of Pt or Pt-lined Ni is used in the preparation of sulphuryl and/or thionyl fluoride by pyrolysis of a sulphur oxy-fluoride, having in its molecule hexavalent S and two F atoms and of higher molecular weight than the desired end product, at between 200°C and 1800°C.
signal stat corp. British Patent 805,871
A high carbon spring steel member is welded to a cold rolled mild steel member by forming a first spot-weld between the superimposed members, placing against the spring steel member a piece of Ni, Pt or an alloy of Ni or Pt and spot-welding this piece to the members by a second spot-weld adjacent the first weld.
Hydrogenation of Saccharides
engelhard industries inc. British Patent 806,236
A polyhydric alcohol is made by treating an aqueous solution of a saccharide with hydrogen in the presence of a Ru-containing catalyst. The catalyst consists of Ru metal or RuO2 or Ru mixed with another Pt group metal and preferably carried on a support, e.g. C or Al2O3.
New Basic Steroid Derivatives
f. hoffmann-la roche & co. a.g. British Patent 806,581
An Adam’s PtO2 hydrogenation catalyst and a Pd-C catalyst are used in a process for the manufacture of 17 [piperidyl-(21)-methyl]-androstane-diol-(3β, 17β) and 11-methyl and 11-ethyl derivatives thereof.
Preparing Esters of Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids
e. i. du pont de nemours & co. British Patent 806,800
Esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids are prepared by reacting allene and a monohydric alkanol or cycloalkanol with CO at a pressure of at least 100 atm and a temperature of 120–250°C in contact with at least 1% (by wt of the allene) of a Ru carbonyl catalyst.
british insulated callender’s cables ltd. et al . British Patent 806,977
A printed circuit is made by mechanically roughening the surface of an insulating base of resin-bonded fibrous material, activating part or all of the surface by treatment with a solution containing a soluble salt of a noble metal, treating the activated surface with a reducing agent to precipitate the noble metal and finally treating the base with a hot solution containing a soluble Ni salt, hypophosphite ions and a buffer under such conditions that the Ni (containing Ni phosphide) is deposited on the surface. An aqueous solution of PdCl2 of a strength of 100–500 p.p.m. is preferably used.
Manufacture of Novel Ketones
f. hoffmann-la roche & co. a.g. British Patent 807,009
Novel ketones of specified general formula are prepared by catalytically hydrogenating a compound of given formula under conditions of temperature and pressure allowing of hydrogenation of the carbon-to-carbon double bond or bonds in the nuclear substituent or substitucnts of the compound. The catalyst employed is a Pd catalyst, preferably a reduced Pd-CaCO3 catalyst. A temperature of 20–30°C and a hydrogen pressure of not over 30 p.s.i.g. is employed.
w. r. grace & co. British Patent 807,272
A gasoline reforming catalyst is made by impregnating a base, formed of silica gel partially deactivated to a surface area of 400-625 sq.m/g by heat treatment and modified by the addition before, during or after deactivation, of 0.1–1 wt.% Al2O3, with an aqueous solution of a Pt or Pd compound in amount to form a final catalyst containing 0.1–1 wt.% of Pt or Pd, drying and converting the adsorbed compound to the metal. An aqueous solution of chlorplatinic acid may be used.
Purification of Commercial Hydrogen
engelhard industries inc. British Patent 807,584
Carbon monoxide and/or CO2 present in commercial hydrogen is/are removed by contacting the hydrogen with a Rh or Ru catalyst (0.01–2% of the metal), supported on a water-insoluble dehydrated metal oxide, e.g. Al2O3 at a reaction temperature of at least 120°C until the CO and CO2 content is completely converted to methane. The process may also be used expressly for the production of methane.
New Indole Derivatives
imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 807,877
New indole compounds of given formula are made by de-aralkylating the corresponding 5-aralkyloxy-indole compounds of given formula by means of hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably Pd-C or Pd-BaSO4.
roche products ltd. British Patent 808,045
The use of a Pd-C hydrogenation catalyst is referred to in the manufacture of 4-methyl-5-alkyl-pyridone (2).
Conversion of Ethanolamine into Ethylene Diamine etc.
the dow chemical co. British Patent 808,114
Pt- or Pd-Al2O3 or finely divided SiO2 may be used in the conversion of ethanolamine into ethylene diamine, piperazine and diethylene triamine by passing a stream of ethanolamine and NH3 under pressure over a fixed bed of the catalyst maintained at elevated temperature.
Use of Palladium Alloys for Electric Interrupter Contacts
e. durrwachter German Patent 1,022,385
Covers a modification of the alloy of 0.1–25% Pb and/or 0.1–20%, Sn, remainder Pd, see German Patent 961,762, for use as an electric interrupter contact in which, in place of, or in addition to, Pb and/or Sn, one or more of the metals In, Ga, Tl, or Ge is included, the total content of Pb, Sn and addition metals being from 0.1–20%, preferably 5–15%.
Apparatus for the Automatic Firing of Gas Burners
w. c. heraeus g.m.b.h. German Patent 1,028,055
Refers to the use of a Pt or other Pt metal catalyst, in the form of wire gauze, in an apparatus for the automatic firing of gas burners, e.g. propane or butane gas burners.
Separation of Metal Salts from Aqueous Solutions
rohm & haas g.m.b.h. German Patent 1,028,551
In the process of separating noble metal salts, e.g. Au and/or Pt salts, from aqueous solutions according to German Patent 965,635 in which the metal salts are contacted with the products resulting from the polymerisation of HCN, the products enriched with the salts are treated with a mixture of an excess of solvent, miscible with water, e.g. acetone and aqueous HCl.
Galvanic Deposition of Platinum on a Metal Object
n.v. philips gloeilampenfabrieken German Patent 1,033,478
In a method for the electrodeposition of Pt on a metal object using a Pt containing electrolyte from which Pt is deposited in the form of a layer of Pt black, which is sintered at about 1000°C and converted to Pt, the object is brought at least once, with the employment of a relatively high current density, into an electrolyte bath consisting of a solution of 150–300 g chlorplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and 1–15 g of mercuric chloridc (HgCl2) per litre.
Production of Complex Platinum- and Palladium-Hydroxides
atlantic refining co. German Patent 1,033,646
Complex Pt- or Pd-hydroxides are produced by passing a dilute aqueous solution of a Pt or Pd complex salt over an anion exchange resin, which is in the hydroxyl state.
houdry process corp. U.S. Patent 2,857,336
A hydrocarbon conversion catalyst is made by treating calcined activated γ-Al2O3 particles with acetic acid, washing with a limited amount of water to leave a significant amount of acid adsorbed on the particles, drying at less than 300°F and impregnating the particles with a Pt compound. Platinum is thereby distributed throughout the thickness of the Al2O3 particles in such manner as to resist migration to the surfaces thereof.
Preparation of Catalyst
e.i. du pont de nemours & co. U.S. Patent 2,857,337
A hydrogenation catalyst is made by heating a solution of PdCl2 in an alkali metal bicarbonate system (wt. ratio of bicarbonate to Pd being from 5 : 1 to 85 : 1) to 90–95°C in the presence of an inert carrier for at least 15 min.
Production of Cyclohexanone
allied chemical corp. U.S. Patent 2,857,432
Cyclohexanone is made by continuously passing hydrogen into a liquid body of a mixture of cyclohexanone and phenol, having dispersed in it powdered Pd catalyst at an elevated temperature so as to hydrogenate the phenol to cyclohexanone, continuously passing a gas through the body to remove cyclohexanone as vapour free of catalyst, to maintain the concentration at 30–80% by wt.
the m. w. kellogg co. U.S. Patent 2,860,102
Discloses a novel reforming process in which a light hydrocarbon oil is contacted with a fluidised mass of finely divided Pt catalyst under reforming conditions and which includes regeneration of the contaminated catalyst.
h. nishimura U.S. Patent 2,861,114
A thermocouple consists of Pt and a Pt-Mo-W alloy containing 0.5–4% Mo and 3–6.5% W. The sum of the Mo and W is always less than 7%.
sinclair refining co. U.S. Patent 2,861,942
A process of reforming olefin-free hydrocarbons of gasoline and naphtha boiling ranges in the presence of hydrogen and a Pt metal reforming catalyst and utilising in series catalyst beds maintained under reforming conditions in a number of adiabatic reaction zones, with a heating zone before each reaction zone, includes the steps of passing the heated feed to a reaction zone at an inlet temperature of 875–975°F, heating the effluent from a reaction zone and passing it to a subsequent reaction zone at a temperature at least 25° below the temperature of the preceding reaction zone.
w. r. grace & co. U.S. Patent 2,861,958
A silica gel base reforming catalyst is made by impregnating silica gel with an aqueous solution of aluminium chlorplatinate in amount to give 0.05–5 wt.% Pt and 0.01–1 wt.% Al2O3, drying and converting the adsorbed Pt compound to Al2O3 and metallic Pt.
esso research & engineering co. U.S. Patent 2,861,959
A hydrocarbon conversion catalyst consists of 0.1–1% by wt. of metallic Pt finely dispersed on an Al2O3 carrier, promoted by the addition of less than 0.5% by wt. MoO3. The amount of oxide used is below the minimum at which it would, by itself, form an effective catalyst with the Al2O3.
Hydrocarbon Conversion Process and Catalyst
standard oil co. U.S. Patent 2,861,960
A Pt-Al2O3 catalyst is made by mixing with Al2O3 a solution of a co-ordination compound of a Pt halide and an organic compound containing an olefinic double bond, decomposing the Pt compound to deposit Pt in the Al2O3 and calcining.
Production of Dibenzyl Ethylenediamine
the distillers co. ltd. U.S. Patent 2,862,969
Dibenzyl ethylenediamine is prepared by hydro-genating dibenzylidene ethylenediamine with hydrogen in an inert solvent at 0–300 p.s.i. pressure and a temperature of 20–45°C in the presence of a Pd-Al2O3 catalyst in amount as to provide 0.25–1% by wt. of Pd with respect to the dibenzylidene ethylenediamine originally present.
Separating Hydrogen Isotopes
u.s. atomic energy commission U.S. Patent 2,863,526
A gaseous mixture of hydrogen and tritium is separated by contacting finely divided Pd with the mixture, which is taken up by sorption, and gradually heating the Pd to cause a fraction rich in tritium to be given off first, other evolved fractions being collected, as they are formed.