Platinum Metals Rev., 2013, 57, (2), 154
Patents: April 2013
CATALYSIS – APPLIED AND PHYSICAL ASPECTS
Lyondell Chemical Technology, US Appl. 2012/0,302,784
A Pd-Au catalyst is prepared by the following method: (a) mixing TiO2, a carboxyalkyl cellulose and a hydroxyalkyl cellulose to form a dough; (b) extruding the dough to produce an extrudate; (c) calcining the extrudate to produce a calcined extrudate; (d) impregnating the calcined extrudate with Pd and Au compounds to produce an impregnated extrudate; and (e) calcining the impregnated extrudate to produce the Pd-Au catalyst. This catalyst is used in producing vinyl acetate by oxidising ethylene with oxygen in the presence of acetic acid.
CATALYSIS – REACTIONS
Reusable Hydroformylation Catalyst
Umicore AG & Co KG, World Appl. 2012/163,831
A novel process for producing 4-hydroxybutyraldehyde is claimed, where an allyl alcohol is reacted in polar solvents with CO and H2 in the presence of a catalyst which is formed from a Rh complex and a cyclobutane ligand e.g. trans-1,2-(1,3-dialkylphenylphosphinomethyl)cyclobutanes, 1, where R1 is alkyl, preferably methyl, ethyl or propyl; R2 is H or an alkoxy group; R3 and R4, independently of one another, are H, CH2OR1, CH2O-aralkyl, CH2OH, CH2-[P(3,5-R1,R1-4-R2-phenyl)2], or CH2O-(CH2-CH2-O)m-H; where m is 1–1000. The hydroformylation takes place in a membrane reactor and the catalyst used is separated off from the reaction mixture, optionally after adding water, by extraction with hydrophobic solvents and is reused.
Catalyst for Alkylation of Aromatic Compounds
Stamicarbon BV, European Appl. 2,540,691; 2013
A method for the alkylation of an aromatic compound involves the aromatic compound making contact with an alkane of 1–12 C atoms at 200–500°C, preferably 320–400°C, in the presence of a catalyst composition consisting of a catalytically active metal selected from Pt, Pd, Rh, Os, Ir, Ru or a combination and a promoter metal, e.g. Zn, on a zeolite support. The molar ratio of the promoter metal to the catalytically active metal is between 0.01 and 5, preferably between 0.1 and 0.5.
Catalyst for Naphtha Reforming
OOO Nauchno-Proizvodstvennaya Firma, Russian Patent 2,471,854; 2013
A catalyst for reforming gasoline fractions comprises (in wt%): 0.1–1.0 Pt; 0.1–1.0 Cl; 0.5–3.9 zeolite; 1–2 amorphous Al2SiO5; γ-Al2O3; and optionally 0.1–0.5 Re. Al(OH)3 powder is mixed with zeolite, this mixture is peptised with 0.5–20% organic acid, e.g. citric acid, it is then granulated, heat treated at 630–700°C and this is followed by the addition of Pt in the form of an aqueous solution of chloroplatinic acid and chlorine in the form of HCl. The catalyst is then dried and annealed.
Platinum Group Metal Catalyst
Johnson Matthey Plc, World Appl. 2012/170,421
A catalyst for treating exhaust gas consists of an aluminosilicate molecular sieve comprising crystals with a porous network and at least one pgm with the majority of the selected pgm embedded in the porous network relative to the pgm disposed on the surface in a ratio of ~4:1 to ~99:1. The catalyst comprises ~0.01–10 wt% pgm relative to the weight of the molecular sieve and the crystals have a mean crystalline size of ~0.01–10 μm. A method for treating emissions comprises of: (a) contacting a lean burn exhaust stream containing NOx and NH3 with the catalyst at ~150°C–650°C; and (b) reducing a portion of NOx to N2 and H2O at ~150°C–250°C and oxidising a portion of NH3 at ~300°C–650°C.
Cold Start Catalyst
Johnson Matthey Plc, US Appl. 2012/0,308,439
A cold start catalyst consists of: (a) a zeolite catalyst comprising a base metal, a noble metal and a zeolite; and (b) a supported pgm catalyst comprising one or more pgms and one or more inorganic oxide carriers. The noble metal is selected from Pt, Pd, Rh or a mixture. The zeolite catalyst and the supported pgm catalyst are coated onto a flow-through substrate in an exhaust system.
Three-Way Catalyst Microwave Drying
X. Weng et al., Chinese Appl. 102,614,942; 2012
A TWC drying technique consists of taking porous cordierite as the support and coating the surface of its internal pores with a catalyst slurry which contains H2O, composite Al2O3, CeO2-ZrO2 oxygen storage material and Pd or Rh. The catalyst slurry coated support is then introduced through microwave devices and dried at 1400–2500 MHz microwave to have a water content
Nanostructured Platinum Catalyst
Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission, World Appl. 2013/017,772
The process for producing a catalyst PtxMy for PEMFC, where M is a transition metal selected from Ni, Fe, Co and Cr, involves: (a) deposition of PtxMy nanostructures on a support by sputtering; (b) annealing the nanostructures at 600–1200°C preferably for 1 h; and (c) depositing a layer of PtxMy onto the surface of the nanostructures; and (d) then leaching the metal M. The catalyst is made with Pt3Ni. The support is the GDL and the thickness is preferably 200 μm.
Microbial Fuel Cell
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, US Appl. 2012/0,315,506
A microbial fuel cell system consists of a unit cell where the anode is formed on the bottom surface and the cathode is formed on the top surface of a reactor which accommodates electrochemically active microorganisms and an ion exchange membrane is interposed between the two electrodes. The cathode consists of a carbon electrode treated with Pt, Pd, Os or Ru. The unit cells are arranged vertically and are electrically connected to each other in series through a conductive film to form a module.
Tokuyama Corp, Japanese Appl. 2013-037,891
A Pt-Rh catalyst for DMFCs consists of a ratio of 0.10–2.00 mol Rh to 1 mol Pt. The catalysts show a high MeOH oxidation current at a low voltage in an alkaline environment. Electrodes containing the title catalysts can be bonded to anion-exchange membranes and used in MEAs.
METALLURGY AND MATERIALS
Black Fire Retardant Silicone Rubber
Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Chinese Appl. 102,643,552; 2012
A black fire retardant silicone rubber is prepared with (in wt%): 50–60 vinyl- or allyl-capped silicone rubber; 5–10 hydrogen-containing polysiloxane; 0.1–0.3 soluble Pt catalyst; and 29.7–44.9 fire retardant which is a mixture of carbonised residue of waste tyre pyrolysis and (NH4)2HPO4. The method of preparing the black fire retardant silicone rubber involves adding the carbonisation residue of waste tyre pyrolysis and (NH4)2HPO4 into the vinyl- or allyl-capped silicone rubber, stirring, adding the hydrogen-containing polysiloxane and the Pt catalyst, stirring, ball milling, vacuum air exhausting and finally curing at 20–40°C.
MEDICAL AND DENTAL
Boston Scientific Neuromodulation Corp, US Patent 8,329,314; 2012
An implantable microstimulator comprising a component assembly housing which consists of a ceramic part, a metal part selected from Ti and Ti alloys and a Pd interface layer is claimed. The interface layer comprises Pd which is combined with a portion of one or both of the metal part or the ceramic part, forming a bond between the two parts and further comprising an electrode contact. A second Pd interface layer bonds the electrode contact to the ceramic part of the component assembly housing.
REFINING AND RECOVERY
Separation of Pure Osmium
The Curators of the University of Missouri, World Appl. 2013/020,030
A process for separating Os including from an irradiated Os-191 mixture, involves: (a) the mixture is put into contact with an aqueous solution of NaClO at a concentration of ~12% available Cl2 to form a volatile OsO4 vapour; (b) the OsO4 vapour is bubbled through a trapping solution which consists of an aqueous solution of KOH at a concentration of ~25% w/v to form dissolved K2[OsO4(OH)2]; (c) the dissolved K2[OsO4(OH)2] is put in contact with an aqueous solution of NaHS at a concentration of ~10% w/v to form an OsS2 precipitate; (d) the OsS2 precipitate is washed by agitating with H2O; (e) the OsS2 precipitate is separated from the KOH trapping solution by centrifuging; (f) the OsS2 precipitate is rinsed with acetone; and (g) the OsS2 precipitate is then dried. The advantages of this process are the use of simple reactions and equipment, and a shorter process time; therefore, limiting the exposure to potentially hazardous conditions.
Electroless Plating of Iridium
Japan Kanigen Co, Ltd, Japanese Appl. 2012-241,258
A plating solution comprises either or both of Ir3+ and Ir4+ plus Ti3+. A preferable plating solution consists of 0.2–60 mmol l−1 Ir ions, 0.01–2 mol l−1 Ti3+ and has pH 1–6. The solution may also contain 0.001–1 mol l−1 mono- or dicarboxylic acids or their salts as stabilisers and 0.001–1 mol l−1 N- and P-free oxidation inhibiting agents of redox potential −0.1–0.8 V vs. SHE, e.g. ascorbic acid, erythorbic acid, catechol, catechol disulfonic acid and their salts. High quality Ir coatings are directly formed on Cu alloys.