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Platinum Metals Rev., 1965, 9, (1), 31

NEW PATENTS: January 1965

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METALS AND ALLOYS


Palladium or Palladium Alloy Diffusion Tube for the Separation of Hydrogen from Gaseous Mixtures


johnson, matthey – co ltd. British Patent 966,122

A diffusion tube used for the separation of H2 from gaseous mixtures made of pure Pd or 75 wt.% Pd-25 wt.% Ag alloy, is made more robust and its life is prolonged by the incorporation of stainless steel or Ni coil springs or metal or ceramic rods as stiffening members, which prevent flattening of the tube walls yet permit free passage of gas.

Rhodium-containing Magnetic Alloys


e. i. du pont de nemours – co. U.S. Patent 3,144,324

Ferromagnetic materials exhibiting very good saturation magnetisation values and high Curie temperatures comprise in at.% 0.8-1.2 Fe, 0.8-1.2 Rh and 0.01-0.20 of at least one metal of Group IIA atomic no. 4-12 or Group IIIA, IVA, VA or VIA atomic no. 13-83, e.g. Al, Mg, Ge, Si, Sb, S, Ga, etc. See also 3,144,325.

Gold-Platinum Spinneret Alloy


deutsche gold- und silber- scheideanstalt German Patent 1,175,886

The material used for spinnerets, especially for viscose, is unhardened and homogeneous and consists of 68-88% Au and 12-32% Pt. See also 1=177=350.

Easily Worked Ruthenium


international nickel co. (mond) ltd. German Patent 1,177,349

Ru which is easily formed is obtained by melting Ru in the presence of one or more of the metals Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, Ge, Ba, Hf, Ce, Er, Gd, Hm, La, Pr, Sm, Yb and Y. Zn is preferred.

Gold Alloy Coatings on Wire


siemens – halske a.g. German Patent 1,178,273

Very thin Mo and W wires for electrical discharge devices may be successfully coated with an Au alloy by using an alloy of Au with 3-30 wt.% Pt and at least 3% Ni or Fe.

ELECTROCHEMISTRY


Platinum Group Metal Coated Electrode for Electrochemical Processes


deutsche gold- und silber- scheideanstalt British Patent 965,958

An electrode particularly suitable for alkali-metal chloride electrolysis consists of a large flat area formed by many separate elements, each of which consists of a Cu core surrounded by a layer of Ti coated with a Pt group metal.

Electrolytic Production of Hydrogen


johnson, matthey – co. ltd. British Patent 973,810

Extremely pure H2 is produced efficiently by electrolysis using 1% H2S04 solution as electrolyte and a membrane, diaphragm or tube cathode made of an alloy containing 5-30 wt.% Ag and the balance Pd.

Method of Separating Hydrogen Isotopes


johnson, matthey – co. ltd. British Patent 973,820

H isotopes for the manufacture of deuterium as “heavy water” are separated by electrolysis or by electrolytic migration using a membrane, diaphragm or tube diffusion element made of an alloy containing 5-30 wt.% Ag and the balance Pd.

Palladium and its Alloys in the Manufacture of Platinised Noble Metal Electrodes


institut francais du petrole, des carburants et lubrifiants. French Patent 1,354,801

Platinised electrodes of improved activity are produced by immersing an Au, Pt or Pd metal electrode in an electrolyte containing halo-platinic acid and 50-200 mg/1 of a dissociated Pb salt and applying 150-350 mV at 25°C.

Platinum Electrodes for Electrolytic Cells


pittsburgh plate glass co. French Patent 1,360,905

The electrolytic cells used for the production of Cl2 and alkali metal derivatives are provided with an anode whose active surface is platinised and whose support may be Ti or Ta. If desired other Pt group metals may be used, the thickness of the active film being varied and the performance of the anode improved by a “cationic” treatment.

Combined Electrolysis Electrode


magneto-chemie n.v. Dutch Application 289, 280

An electrode combined with a diaphragm consists of a perforated massive plate of Ti, covered on one side with a barrier layer of TiO2 and on the other side with a thin porous layer of noble metal or alloy, e.g. a 70:30 Pt-Ir alloy.

ELECTROPLATING


Platinum Electroplating Electrolyte


comptoir lyon-allemand, louyot – cie French Patent 1,356,353

The electrolyte is a solution containing Pt (II) diamminodinitrate to which 5-40 g/1 of fluoborate ions have been added as a hot aqueous solution.

BRAZING


Gold-Palladium-Nickel Brazing Alloys


aerojet-general corp. U.S. Patent 3,148,053

Improved brazing alloys suitable for use in a vacuum furnace comprise 1-77 wt.% Au, 1-59 wt.% Pd and 20-61 wt.% Ni, Cr or their mixtures.

Braze-welding of Graphite to Refractory Materials


societe nationale d’etude et de construction
et moteurs d’aviation French Patent 1,355,568

Two pieces of graphite may be welded to each other or graphite may be braze-welded to a refractory metal, e.g. Hf, Ta, W, Zr, etc., by interposing between the workpieces a brazing flux consisting of one or several refractory metals and 1-50 wt.% Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd, Ir or Os.

CATALYSIS


Ruthenium Catalysts for the Hydroformy-lation of Olefines


imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 966,482

Olefines are hydroformylated by bringing them, together with a 3:1 to 1:3 by volume mixture of CO and H,, into contact with a catalyst containing 0.0005-0.01 wt.% Ru in the form of the metal or a compound and carrying out the reaction at 140-200°C and 200-300 atm.

Deuterium Enrichment of Hydrogen


v. e. b. vakutronik British Patent 967,000

Reference is made to the use of a Pt/C catalyst in a process for the D2 enrichment of H2 or the production of heavy water.

Olefine Hydrogenation in the Presence of Aromatic Hydrocarbons


engelhard industries inc. British Patent 967,879

Dienes in a mixture containing dienes, olefines and aromatic compounds (boiling range 100-400°F) are hydrogenated by contacting the mixture with H2 and a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst at a temperature not exceeding 210°F in conditions such that 90% of the material remains in the liquid phase.

Hydrogenation of Benzoic Acid


snia viscosa s.p.a. British Patent 967,918

Benzoic acid is hydrogenated to hexahydro-benzoic acid using a finely subdivided H2 stream and a supported Pd catalyst. See also 967,919.

Selective Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbons in the Liquid State


farbenfabriken bayer a.g. British Patent 968,337

A hydrocarbon mixture containing acetylenes, allenes and other diolefines is hydrogenated selectively by passing it in the liquid state and in an atmosphere of H2 over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst through nets of 30-70 mm diameter vertical reaction tubes which arc externally cooled.

Palladium Catalyst in the Production of Benzonitrile


the distillers co. ltd. British Patent 968,752

Benzonitrile is produced by the vapour phase dehydrogenation of a hydogenated derivative at 400-500°C over a Pd/C catalyst containing about 1 wt.% metal.

Platinum Group Metal Reforming Process Catalyst


universal oil products co. British Patent 969,789

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst is produced by calcining a hydrous refractory inorganic oxide followed by compounding to give 0.01-2.0 wt.% Pt group metal and 0.75-1.5 wt.% Cl2 and subsequently oxidising at 204-3 10°C for at least one hour, followed by treatment at 371-538°C to give a volatile matter content of <2.0 wt.%.

Production of Organic Bases


imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 969,812

Organic bases are prepared by contacting a mixture of tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and NH3 at elevated temperature with a catalyst of finely divided Pd preferably supported on A12O3.

Production of Porous Electrodes


brown, boveri – co. ltd. British Patent 970,576

The porous catalyst electrodes for electrochemical devices may be produced by mixing a powder of one or more of Pt, Ir, Rh and Pd with a powder of one or more of Al, Zr, Mg, W, Mo and Fe, in a 30-95 wt.% to 5-70 wt.% ratio, shaping under pressure, sintering at 350-800°C and treating with an alkaline or acidic solution to dissolve out the second metal.

Palladium and Platinum Catalysts in the Production of Acetic Acid


halcon international inc. British Patent 971,100

CH3COOH is produced by contacting a gaseous mixture of C2H4 and 03 at 150-300°C and 1- 1000 atm. with a catalyst comprising a ceramically bonded α-Al2O3 supporting 0.1-5 wt.% Pt or Pd salt or oxide and 1-20 wt.% V, Co, Mo or Mn salt or oxide.

Catalytic Treatment of Automobile Exhaust Gases


w. r. grace – co. British Patent 971,994

Pollutants in automobile exhaust gases are oxidised catalytically by mixing them with an O2- containing gas and contacting with an activated mixture of (1) 10-l00μ particle size A12O3, SiO2-Al2O3 or MgO3 or acid-treated clay containing Pt and Pd in a 0.125-2.0 Pt:Pd wt.ratio and (2) finely divided, porous A12O3, A12O3-B2O3, -TiO2 or -ZrO2 diluent providing a 5-250 dilution ratio and giving a 0.005-0.2 wt.% final content each of Pt and Pd.

Platinum Catalyst in the Production of Fuel Gas and Synthesis Gases


badische anilin- – soda-fabrik a.g. British Patent 972,263

In the production of fuel and synthesis gases by the catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons in a fluidised bed comprising a refractory oxide support carrying Pt as the active metal, the catalyst is replenished by introducing into the bed a decomposable compound of the active metal, e.g. a carbonyl.

Hydrocarbon Isomerisation Catalysts


union carbide corp. British Patent 972,832

An isomerisation catalyst comprises a partially decationised zeolitic metal aluminosilicate molecular sieve supporting 0.05-2.0 wt.% Group VIII metal, in particular Pt or Pd.

Portable I.R. Spot Heater


universal oil products co. British Patent 972,942

A portable I.R. spot heater utilising liquefied gases uses a perforate diffusion screen made of “Nichrome” “Chromel” or other Cr/Ni alloy and catalytically activated by a coating of Pt, Pd or other Pt group metal, which may be used in conjunction with smaller amounts of Th, Ru, W or Cs.

Cycloheptylamine Production


abbott laboratories. U.S. Patent 3,139,454

The hydrogenation of cycloheptanone oxime to cycloheptylamine is catalysed by 0.3-3.0% Rh when low hydrogen pressures and temperatures of 0-100°C are used.

Benzoic Acid Hydrogenation


allied chemical corp. U.S. Patent 3,141,036

Molten benzoic acid may be hydrogenated to cyclohexane carboxylic acid by treatment with H2 at 1-40 atm. in the presence of a catalyst composed of palladised charcoal.

Platinum Catalysts in the Production of Lubricating Oils


socony mobil oil co. inc. U.S. Patent 3,142,635

Catalysts consisting of 0.5-1.0 wt.% Pt supported on SiO2/Al2O3 are used in the production of high viscosity-index lubricating oils by the hydro-cracking of 750-850°F b.p. straight run fractions.

Platinum Hydrocracking Catalysts


esso research – engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,143,511

An improved paraffin hydrocracking catalyst is produced by contacting A12O3 impregnated with 0.1-5 wt.% Pt with FeCl3 vapour at 500-950°F and moist air to effect hydrolysis, this being followed by reduction to obtain a o. 1-5 wt. % Fe content on the catalyst.

Platinum or Palladium Series Hydrocracking Catalysts


socony mobil oil co. U.S. Patent 3,144,401

Hydrocarbon fractions are advantageously hydro-cracked by contacting them and hydrogen with 0.05-10 wt.% Pt or Pd series metal deposited on a refractory oxide and adding S compounds so as continuously to maintain a 0.5-5 wt.% S content during the hydrocracking process.

Noble Metal Catalysts for the Polymerisation of Olefinically Unsaturated Compounds


wacker-chemie g.m.b.h. U.S. Patent 3,145,194

Copolymers and polymers of olefinically unsaturated compounds are produced by contacting them at —80 to +50°C with 0.001-0.5 wt.% inorganic per-compound, organic peroxide or hydroperoxide, H2 at 0.1-10 atm. partial pressure and 0.00001—0.1 wt.% aqueous colloidal sol of a Pt group metal.

Platinum Hydrogenation Catalysts


e. i. du pont de nemours – co. U.S. Patent 3,145,231

Halogen-substituted aromatic amines are produced by the hydrogenation of nitro-mono-carbocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 30-150°C and 200-600 p.s.i.g. H2 pressure in the presence of 1 part Pt per 10000-100000 parts nitro compound and 0.01-1.5 moles cycloaliphatic base per I mole nitro compound.

Platinum Group Metal Catalysts in the Production of Carbonyl Compounds


the pure oil co. U.S. Patent 3,147,203

Carbonyl compounds are produced by oxidation of at least one oleflne at 0-200°C in the presence of an aqueous catalytic solution of a Pt group metal halide and by an electrochemical process involving regeneration of the catalyst and utilising Raney Ag, Pt, Cu, Ni, etc., electrodes.

Platinum Group Metal Hydro-refining Catalysts


esso research – engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,147,229

Pt group metal catalysts of improved activity and of longer life are produced by (1) activation of Al 2O3 by calcining to give a surface area of 230 ± 20 m2/g (2) impregnating with Pt, Pd or Rh and activating the catalyst by calcining above 1000°C and (3) halogen-treating the product under conditions giving an active metal surface of 200±20 m2/g Pt or 38O±38 m2/g Pd or Rh.

Platinum Catalyst for the Oxidation of Exhaust Gases


universal oil products co. U.S. Patent 3,148,036

An improved arrangement of an exhaust gas converter uses, as the oxidation catalyst, A12O3 spheres supporting 0.1 wt.% Pt.

Palladium Hydrogenation Catalyst in the Production of Aminophenols


universal oil products co. French Patent 1,354,430

Aminophenols are produced by the hydrogenation of corresponding nitrophenols with H2 in the presence of Pd/C catalysts at 25-100°C, 1-35 atm.

Precious Metal Catalysts in the Production of Olefinic Esters


union carbide corp. French Patent 1,355,109

Olefine esters are produced by the reaction in an inert solvent at 70-130°C of an olefine and a mono-carboxylic acid in the presence of a Pt group metal as catalyst.

Alumina-supported Palladium Hydrocracking Catalysts


gulf research – development co. French Patent 1,355,210

Low b.p. hydrocarbons are produced by the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon distillates in the presence of a catalyst consisting of an active A12O3 support, obtained by precipitation of Al(OH)3 at pH 7-8.5> carrying up to 16 wt.% Mo or W oxide and/or sulphide and about I wt.% Pd sulphide or oxide. The use of Pt in the place of Pd compounds is possible.

Hydrocracking Process and Catalyst for Hydrocarbon Oils


shell internationale research mij. n.v. French Patent 1,356,567

Improved supported Pt or Pd catalysts are obtained by co-precipitating the support oxides as a hydrogel in the presence of compounds of the catalyst metals and then processing the product to a catalyst in the usual way.

Cycloalkanone Oxime Production


sicedison s.p.a. French Patent 1,357,233

2-Halocycloalkanone oximes are dehalogenated in organic solution with a strong acid by using H2 with a palladised charcoal catalyst.

Platinum and Palladium in the Production of Acetic Acid


scientific design co. inc. French Patent 1,358,382

CH8COOH is produced by the catalytic gaseous phase oxidation of C2H4 with O2 at 200-250°C in the presence of a catalyst comprising A12O3 supporting 0.1-5 wt. % Pd or Pt and 5-20 wt. % V, Co, Mo or Mn, preferably in the form of their halides and oxides respectively.

Platinum Dehydrogenation Catalyst


scientific design co. inc. French Patent 1,358,386

A catalyst consisting of active C, which has been treated with 0.1-19% HCl and has been washed and impregnated with up to 5% Pt is used in the production of phenol by the dehydogenation of the heavy fraction arising from the oxidation of cyclohexane.

Precious Metal Hydrodealkylation Catalysts


union carbide corp. French Patent 1,358,439

Alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons are hydrodealkylated by contacting them at 400-650°C in a H2 atmosphere with a molecular sieve constituted by zeolitic aluminosilicate and carrying a small proportion of, inter alia, Pt or Pd.

Platinum Group Halogenation Catalysts


imperial chemical industries ltd. French Patent 1,359,016

Halogenated hydrocarbons are produced by contacting an define, HX and a source of O2 at 200-600°C with a catalyst comprised by an inert support and a Pt group metal, preferably Pt or Pd.

Rhodium Catalyst for Reduction of Organ-onitro Compounds


abbott laboratories French Patent 1,359,438

The hydrogenation of nitro-aromatic compounds at 20-150°C and 1 atm. to 10.5 kg/cm2 H2 in the presence of 0.01-2.0 wt.% Rh catalyst results in the formation of the corresponding aromatic amines.

PaDadium-containing Catalyst for the Oxidation of Exhaust Fumes


w. r. grace – co. French Patent 1,359,988

A catalyst suitable for incorporation into filters for the exhaust systems of internal combustion engines comprises a high specific area refractory oxide support carrying 2-20 wt.% CuO, 0.0025-0.1 wt.% Pd and 1-10 wt.% Cr203.

Platinum Oxide Catalyst in the Production of Ornithine


shell internationale research mij. n.v. French Patent 1,360,750

In the production of ornithine from acrolein and cyanuric hydride the hydrogenation step is carried out in the presence of a PtO catalyst.

Platinum Alloy or Mixture Catalysts in the Production of Hydroxylamine


inventa a. g. French Patent 1,360,983

Hydroxylamine is produced by reduction of nitrogen oxide in acid solution at pH 0.5-2.5, at 65-80°C and in the presence of 0.4-1.0 mole hydroxylamine salt and Pt, Ag, NO3-impregnated Pt or a Pt alloy with Ag, Hg, Au, Ir or Pd as catalyst supported on a suitable material.

Rhodium Catalyst in the Production of Alpha-acyloxy-propionaldehydes


ajinomoto co. inc. French Patent 1,361,797

The reaction in a liquid phase at elevated temperatures and pressures between a vinyl ester of fatty acids and H2 and CO in the presence of a Rh catalyst yields a-acyloxy- propionaldehydes.

Precious Metal Hydrogenation Catalysts


shionogi – co. ltd. French Patent 1,361,980

Unsaturated morphinanes may be hydrogenated with H2 in the presence of a Pt or Pd catalyst.

Production of Hydrogen Cyanide


imperial chemical industries ltd. German Patent 1,173,444

The NH3/CH4 reaction of this process is catalysed by a Pt metal or alloy catalyst which has been activated by pretreatment with reaction mixture to which S has been added.

Lubricating Oil Production


universal oil products co. German Patent 1,174,007

A crude oil fraction with at least 95% of its components, including condensed ring naphthalenes, boiling above 285°C is hydrogenated in the presence of a Pt metal catalyst, supported on a non-acidic carrier, to provide a lubricant feedstock.

Tetrafluorodichloroisopropanol Production


allied chemical corp. German Patent 1,176,118

Symmetrical tetrafluorodichloroisopropanol is produced from the corresponding ketone by hydrogenation over a Pt catalyst in the liquid phase.

Production of Organic Carbonyl Compounds


consortium fur elektrochemische industrie German Patent 1,176,141

The C = C double bond of olefines is converted to CHO or CO by reaction with aqueous Pt metal salts, e.g. PdCl2.

Hydrocarbon Conversion Process


standard oil co. German Patent 1,176,306

The hydroforming of hydrocarbons is carried out in the presence of a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst which is regenerated in cycles to restore its HF-soluble content to ≮ 40 wt. % of the Pt.

Uranium Nitrate Solution Production


comitato nazionale per l’energia nucleare German Patent 1,176,631

Uranyl nitrate solutions are reduced to uranium nitrate solutions by means of gaseous hydrogen in the presence of a Pt catalyst. See also 1,176,632.

Continuous Vinyl Ester Production


consortium fur elektrochemische industrie German Patent 1,176,645

Olefines are reacted with a carboxylic acid and a supported Pt catalyst. The catalyst is reoxidised after the vinyl ester has been removed.

Catalyst for Organic Compound Hydrogenation


engelhard industries inc. German Patent 1,176,656

A catalyst especially active for aldehyde and ketone reduction consists of Ru promoted by another Pt metal on a support containing 0.1-10% total catalyst metal of which at least 20 wt.% is Ru.

Production of Alkyl Aromatic Compounds


bataafsche petroleum mij. n.v. German Patent 1,178,065

Diaryl alkanes are converted to alkyl aromatic compounds by heating at 30c-600°C in the presence of a refractory metal oxide catalyst and also a Pt or Pd dehydrogenation catalyst.

Aldehyde and Ketone Production


farbwerke hoechst a. g. Dutch Application 249,648

Alkenes with 3 or more C atoms are reacted with O2 in the presence of H2O, a redox system and a noble metal catalyst, preferably at least 0.25 mol/1 of a Pd compound such as PdCl2.

Selective Hydrogenation of Ethynes


imperial chemical industries ltd. Dutch Application 253,280

In a first phase a gas mixture with excess H2 is used over a catalyst consisting of Pd on large pore size A12O3 while in a second phase hydrogenation is catalysed by Pd on active A12O3.

Catalyst


universal oil products co. Dutch Application 254,008

Long life Friedel-Crafts catalyst consists of a known metal halide deposited on an inorganic oxide support impregnated with a lower valency Pt metal, e.g. Pd reduced with H2.

Production of 2-Ethyl-pyridine


v.e.b. leuna-werke “walter ulbricht” Dutch Application 262,794

Pyridine-2-ethanol is reduced to 2-ethyl-pyridine by H2 in the presence of a Ni/Al2O3 base impregnated with a Pd or Pt oxide catalyst.

FUEL CELLS


Improved Fuel Cell Systems


the electric storage battery co. British Patent 970,420

In an improved fuel cell system, both the electrodes are porous conductive bodies and Ag is used as catalyst for the O2 electrode and Pd or Pt group metals act as catalysts for the H2 electrode.

Improved Fuel Cells


shell research ltd. British Patent 971,454

Electricity is generated in fuel cells which have a circular O2 electrode consisting of microporous PVC on which a μ Ag layer and 5 mg/On2 Pd black have been deposited and a central fuel electrode of exactly the same type to which a fuel comprising a mixture of 1-4 C monohydric alcohol and formaldehyde, formaldehyde polymer or HCOOH is supplied.

Precious Metal Hydrogen Diffusion Electrodes


leesona corp. U.S. Patent 3,148,089

Fuel cells utilise fuel electrodes in the form of H2 diffusion tubes constructed of Pd or Pd/Ag alloys containing 5-40 wt.% Ag.

Fuel Cell Electrode


leesona corp. French Patent 1,354,465

Electrodes for fuel cells are constructed of 0.025-1.27 mm thick foil of hydrophobic or hydrophilic polymer with 40-90% porosity which act as supports for catalytically active porous and conducting metal films, e.g. Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru.

Precious Metals in the Production of Fuel Cell Electrodes


leesona corp. French Patent 1,354,685

An electrode suitable for a fuel cell and non-porous to H2 diffusion is made of a 5-40%, Ag and 95-60% Pd alloy and one of its faces is coated with Pd black. This electrode is used advantageously as an anode in conjunction with a Ni cathode activated by Co or Ni and the Pd black face is turned towards the combustible gas used in the fuel cell.

Palladium and its Alloys in the Manufacture of Hydrogen Electrodes


electricite de france French Patent 1,359,656

The electrode membrane of H2 combustion electric cells, operated at 200-800°C, and having fused salts or oxides as electrolyte, is formed by Pd or its alloys and may be made more rigid by a special framework.

Platinised Electrodes for Fuel Cells


american cyanamid co. French Patent 1,361,225

Electrodes for fuel cells consist of C into which has been incorporated 0.1-40 wt.% Pt and on which 0.1-10 wt.% Pt group metal, preferably Pt, has been electrodeposited.

GLASS TECHNOLOGY


Apparatus for Spinning Molten Glass


deeglas fibres ltd. British Patent 969,905

The apparatus comprises a casing of Rh or Pt in which is a chamber for molten glass and at its bottom a number of tubes leading to spinning nozzles, the tubes being heat-insulated.

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


Resistance Thermometers


deutsche gold- und silber- scheideanstalt British Patent 973,256

In a resistance thermometer, the temperature-sensitive measuring wire consists of a base metal, e.g. Ni, which is coated with a thin layer of 30-70 wt.% Ag,/70-30 wt.% Pd alloy.

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