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Platinum Metals Rev., 1965, 9, (2), 66

NEW PATENTS: April 1965

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METALS AND ALLOYS


Spring Elements


the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 974,057

A spring for use at 500°C or above consists of an Ir alloy containing 0.5-7 wt.% W and incidental impurities.

Commutator Devices for Micromotors


hitachi ltd. British Patent 975,299

A commutator device for micromotors has commutator segments made of 80-60 wt.% Ag and 20-40 wt.% Pd alloy and holders carrying in sliding contact with the segments metallic brushes made of 95-70 wt.% Pt and 5-30 wt.% Ir alloy.

Improving the Ductility of Ruthenium


the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 981,535

The workability of Ru is improved by melting it under neutral conditions in contact with 0.05-5 wt.% of one or more of the elements: Zn, Cd, Bi, Ti, Ge, Ba, Hf, Ce, Er, Ga, Ho, La, Pr, Sm, Y or Yb and allowing it to solidify without changing the conditions.

Precious Metals and Alloys


the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 981,792

A sheet or strip of Pt group metals or their alloys is produced by forming a compact of flake powder with or without alloying ingredients, heating so that sintering occurs and working the sintered metal to give the desired sheet or strip.

Electrical Resistors


international resistance co. U.S. Patent 3,154,503

An electrical resistor is produced by applying to a ceramic substrate and firing a vitreous enamel consisting of 99-50 wt.% glass frit including 1-24 wt.% Ag2O and 1-50 wt.% finely divided Pd, Pt or Rh.

Coating Glass or Refractory Oxides


deutsche gold- & silber-scheideanstalt French Patent 1,366,570

The thermal resistance of refractory metal oxide bodies or mixtures of silicates is improved and their corrosion by other materials is prevented by coating them with a Pt alloy containing 2-10 wt. % Rh and 0.5-ro wt.% Pd.

Spinnerets


deutsche gold- & silber-scheideanstalt German Patent 1,181,922

Longer spinneret life is achieved using alloys containing 25-40% Rh and the remainder Pt.

ELECTROCHEMISTRY


Coated Titanium Electrodes


canadian industries ltd. British Patent 974,320

An electrode particularly suitable as an anode in the electrolysis of brine consists of a Ti core with a 10-200 [i. thick electrodeposited layer of an alloy of 35-60 wt.% Rh and 65-40 wt.% Pt.

Activated Platinum-plated Titanium Anode


universal oil products co. British Patent 974,570

An anode suitable for the electrolysis of an alkaline chloride solution is prepared by electroplating a Ti member from H2PtCl6 solution at 71-77°C to give an adherent amorphous coating of Pt which is then activated by heating above 316°C in the presence of an air stream containing hydrocarbon vapours, whereby catalytic oxidation of the vapours occurs over the entire surface of the Pt coating.

Production of Super-pure Hydrogen


nippon junsinzo k.k. U.S. Patent 3,155,467

Super-pure H2 is obtained by passing a gaseous H2 mixture at 500-600 °C through a permeable wall of a Pd alloy containing 2-40 wt. % of at least one Group I B metal and 0.1-20 wt.% of at least one Group VIII metal other than Pd, e.g. Ag-Ru-Pd or Au-Pt-Pd.

Activation of Platinum Group Metals


johnson, matthev & co. ltd. French Patent 1,364,203

The Pt group metals, and in particular various electrodes coated with such metals, are activated by contacting them with an alkali metal amalgam, distilling off Hg at 260-482°C and recrystallising the Pt or Pt-Rh alloy film at 37l-537°C.

Hydrogen Diffusion Tubes


chemetron corp. French Patent 1,367,110

An improved apparatus for the production of extremely pure H2 uses an arrangement of 75 μ thick Pd diffusion tubes.

ELECTRODEPOSITION


Electrolytic Palladium Plating


international business machines corp. U.S. Patent 3,150,065

Non-porous Pd deposits suitable for use as electrical contacts for printed circuit cards are obtained by using a Pt anode and connecting the substrate as a cathode in a diaphragmless bath solution containing 60 g/1 palladosamine chloride, 10 g/1 Na„Cl, 25 g/1 (NH2)2SO4 and 50 ml/1 NH2OH.

Palladium or Platinum Plating Bath


johnson, matthey & co ltd. German Patent 1,182,924

Bath contains an aqueous solution of a complex dinitritoplatinate (II) or dinitritopalladate (II).

Platinum Electrodeposition


the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. Dutch Application 212,633

Electrodeposition takes place using an aqueous chloroplatinate solution containing 10-50 g Pt and 180-300 g HC1 at 45−90°C using plating conditions laid down in a diagram.

Platinum Plating Baths


asahi kasei k.k.k. Dutch Application 64.02,931

An electroplating bath consists of NH4, K or Na sulphamate dissolved in an aqueous solution of dinitrodiaminoplatinic acid. High gloss coatings can be obtained.

Chemical Deposition of Pd


the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. Dutch Application 64.03,078

Pd is deposited in adherent layers on surfaces by chemical plating from a bath containing Pd (II), an unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and NH3 and /or one or more aliphatic triamines.

BRAZING


Brazing Alloys


the international nickel co. (mond) ltd. British Patent 976,660

A brazing alloy for the production of ceramic-to-ceramic and ceramic-to-metal joints consists of 30-75 wt.% Pd, 2-9 wt.% Ti and the remainder, except for impurities, Ni, preferably taken in a 3:2 Pd: Ni ratio.

Brazing Alloys


aerojet-general corp. U.S. Patent 3,148,053

Brazing alloys suitable for use in a vacuum furnace comprise 1-77 wt.% Au, 1-59 wt.% Pd and 20-61 wt.% Ni, Cr or their mixtures.

CATALYSIS


Removal of Alkynes from Hydrocarbon Mixtures


shell internationale research mij. n.v. British Patent 974,038

Alkynes are removed from a hydrocarbon mixture containing alkadienes by passing a solution of H2 dissolved in such a mixture together with gaseous H2 in an upflow stream through a fixed bed consisting of a macroporous support carrying 0.1-5 wt.% Pd catalyst.

Platinum and Palladium Oxide Catalysts in the Production of 2-Ethyl-pyridine


veb leuna-werke “walter ulbricht” British Patent 974,113

2-Ethyl-pyridine is produced by heating 2-(ß-hydroxyethyl)-pyridine to 250-400°C in an H 2 atmosphere and in the presence of a catalyst consisting of Al2O3 and Pd or Pt oxide.

Platinum Croup Metal Phosphatide Hydrogénation Catalysts


central soya co. inc. British Patent 974,432

Phosphatide material is hydrogenated by contacting Pd, Pt, Rh or their mixtures supported on C, Al2O3, CaCO3 or diatomaceous earth with H2 and then contacting 0.05-1.0 wt.% of the hydrogenated catalyst with the phosphatide and H2.

Production of Sulphonamides


ciba ltd. British Patent 974,983

A Pd/C hydrogénation catalyst is used in the production of 1,4-endoalkylene-cyclohexane-2-sulphonamides by the reaction of sulphonyls with NH3 or amine followed by hydrogénation and if desired also N-alkylation or N-acylation.

Derivatives of l-Phenyl-2-aminoethanol


imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 975,291

The production of 1-phenyl-2-aminoethanol derivatives involves a hydrogénation stage in the presence of Pt or Pd/C catalyst.

Production of Carboxylic Acid Esters


imperial chemical industries ltd British Patent 975,709

Carboxylic acid esters of unsaturated monohydric alcohols are produced by contacting an define with a Pd salt, a carboxylate, which is ionised under the reaction conditions, and a redox system in a carboxylic acid.

Production of Cyclohexanone


allied chemical corp. British Patent 976,339

Cyclohexanone is produced by the hydrogénation of phenol at 150-225°C, 2.46-10.5 kg/cm2 and in the presence of 5% Pd/C catalyst promoted with 1000-7000 p.p.m. of combined Na based on wt. of catalyst and 1-10 p.p.m. of phenol of an inorganic sodium compound.

Production of Aromatic Halogen-containing Compounds


monsanto chemicals ltd. British Patent 976,438

Halogen-substituted aromatic compounds are produced by subjecting an aromatic sulphonyl halide to thermal decomposition at 300-400°C and in the presence of Pd or Pt or an oxide or halide thereof as a catalyst.

Process for Preparing Esters


national distillers & chemical corp. British Patent 976,613

Ethylenically unsaturated esters are produced by reacting an alkene in the vapour phase with a carboxylic organic acid and an O2-containing gas in the presence of a catalyst comprising a Group VIII noble metal and/or its salt or oxide, e.g. Pd/C or PdX2, where X is halogen, or RhCl3.

Platinum Group Metal Catalysts


socony mobil oil co. inc. British Patent 978,261

Pt group metal catalysts are produced by introducing an appropriate metal into a crystalline alumino-silicate zeolite, or into a reaction mixture for preparing such a zeolite, so that the metal is distributed on or within the crystalline structure of the zeolite, followed by thermal treatment at 250-1100°F so that the Pt group metal is catalytically activated.

Production of Cyclododecanone Oxime and its Hydrochloride


badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. British Patent 978,497

The hydrogenation of 2-chlorocyclododecanone-(1)-oxime or a corresponding compound containing one or two olefinic bonds, if carried out at 0-130°C in an inert solvent and in the presence of dispersed, supported Pd or Pt catalyst, yields cyclododecanone oxime HCl.

Hydrocracking Process


universal oil products co. British Patent 978,613

Hydrocarbon oils are hydrocracked at 288-454°C and 75-136 atm H2 pressure in the presence of a catalyst containing 0.or-3.0 wt.% Pd or other Pt group metal on a precalcined base consisting of 37-88 wt.% SiO2 and 63-12 wt.% Al2O3.

Alpha-acetoxypropionaldehyde


ajinomoto co. inc. British Patent 980,239

The reaction between liquid vinyl acetate and H2 and CO at 30-180°C and above 50 kg/cm2 pressure, if carried out in an organic solvent and in the presence of 0.001-1.0 g/1 Rh in the form of its carbonyl, or Rh-containing substance which is converted to carbonyl under the reaction conditions, results in the formation of α-acetoxypro-pionaldehyde.

Preparation of Dipyridyls


imperial chemical industries ltd. British Patent 981,353

2,2´-Dipyridyls or their alkyl derivatives are produced by heating pyridine or its alkyl derivatives of 250-450°C in the presence of 1-50 wt.% alumina catalyst supporting about 5 wt.% finely divided Rh, Os or Ir.

Hydrazine Derivatives


t. j. smith & nephew ltd. British Patent 981,460

N2H4 derivatives of formula OHPH-CH2-NR-NHR are produced by the hydrogen reduction of OHPH-CH2NR-NH2 in alcoholic solution in the presence of R2CO and a PtO catalyst.

Hydrocarbon Conversion Catalysts


the british petroleum co. ltd British Patents 981,691-9

Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts useful as catalysts for isomerisation, the production of halogenated hydrocarbons and dehydrohalogenation comprise a refractory metal oxide supporting 0.01-5 wt.% Pt group metal, preferably Pt or Pd, 0.01-10 wt.% alkali or alkaline earth metal and 1.0-15 wt.% retained halogen, preferably CI.

Platinum Catalyst for the Oxidation of Exhaust Gases


universal oil products co. U.S. Patent 3,148,036

An exhaust gas converter uses as the oxidation catalyst Al2O3 spheres supporting o.r wt.% Pt.

Catalyst Structures


varta a.g. & siemens-schuckertwerke a.g. U.S. Patent 3,150,011

Double skeleton catalyst structures are produced by applying a finely divided supporting skeleton material on a conductive substrate base, sintering at 600-1100°C, embedding a finely divided Raney alloy of Pt, Pd, Re, Ag, W, Mo or Ni activated by a Pt group metal, sintering the laminate and dissolving out the soluble component.

Isomerisation Catalyst


cities service research & development co. U.S. Patent 3,150,073

A reforming and isomerisation process for hydrocarbons utilises 0.6 wt.% Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, 0.5-5 moles H2/mole hydrocarbon and is operated at 600-950°F and 100-600 p.s.i.g.

Production of Cyclohexane


phillips petroleum co. U.S. Patent 3,150,195

Activated charcoal supporting 0.01-5 wt.% Pt is used as a dehydrocyclisation catalyst in the production of C6H12 from a mixture of n-C6HI4 and methylcyclopentane.

Dehydrogenation Catalyst


edogawa k.k.k.k. U.S. Patent 3,150,930

In the cyclic production of H2O2, tetra-hydro-anthraquinone is dehydrogenated to the corresponding anthraquinone at 80-300°C, 1 atm, with an C2H4 or C3H6 or H2 acceptor and Pd catalyst supported by Al2O3, MgO2, etc.

Decolourisation of Phthalic Acids


richfield oil corporation. U.S. Patent 3,151,154

Phthalic acids are decolourised by contacting their solutions in a polar solvent with Pt, Pd, Rh, but preferably PtO2, catalyst and H2 at 100-250°C and 50-2000 p.s.i. followed by acidification and recovery of crystalline acid.

Catalysts in the Preparation of Ketones


diamond alkali co. U.S. Patent 3,151,167

The contacting of an epoxide with an alcohol solution of [Rh(CO)4]2 or [Ir(CO)4]2 causes a molecular rearrangement to R-CO-CH2R1.

Paraffin Conversion Catalysts


phillips petroleum co. U.S. Patent 3,151,180

6-20C aliphatic paraffins are converted to the corresponding defines by contacting them with an a-Al2O3 of 0.01-5 m2/g surface area supporting Pt, Pd or Rh, at 850-1050°F and at atmospheric to 100 p.s.i.g. pressure and with 0.5-10 moles H2 per one mole hydrocarbon.

Catalysts


air products and chemicals inc. U.S. Patent 3,152,092

A Pt/Al2O3 hydrogenative gasoline reforming catalyst is produced by forming sorptive Al2O3 granules by the dehydration of bayerite, subjecting them to humidification and carbonation treatment, impregnating them with a Pt compound and heating at elevated temperature to provide a predominantly dry η-A12O3 carrier with a minor amount of Pt-containing compound.

Hydrogenation Catalysts


phillips petroleum co. U.S. Patent 3,152,144

Sulpholenes are hydrogenated to sulpholanes by adding H2O2 to the feed and hydrogenating in the presence of Al2O3 or diatomaceous earth supporting Pt, Pd or their mixtures as catalyst.

Hydrocracking Catalysts


socony mobil oil co. inc. U.S. Patent 3,152,980

Hydrocarbon charges containing at least 1 wt.% pyrenes are hydrocracked in two stages in the presence of 0.05-20 wt.% Pt or Pd series noble metal supported on a composite of solid refractory oxides.

Hydrogenation Catalysts


commercial solvents corp. U.S. Patent 3,153,095

N, N-Dialkylhydrazines are produced by contacting lower N, N-nitrosodialkylamines with 0.5-1.5 wt.% urea, biuret, etc., to prevent catalyst poisoning and then hydrogenating them in the presence of a refractory oxide- or C-supported Pt, Pd, Rh or Ir catalyst.

Arylnaphthene Production


stamicarbon n.v. U.S. Patent 3,153,678

Aryl or alkaryl napthenes are produced by treating an aromatic hydrocarbon or an alkyl-substituted aromatic hydrocarbon with H2 below 100 atm and 250°C in the presence of a heteropolyacid, e.g. phosphomolybolic acid and 0.1-35 wt.% Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Rh or Ru supported on a refractory oxide, based on the wt. of such acid.

Production of Hydrogen Iodide


el paso natural gas products co. U.S. Patent 3,154,382

HI is produced by reacting H2 and 12 at 100-400°C in the presence of a composite catalyst consisting of Al2O3, 0.01-1.0 wt.% Pt and 0.1-8 wt.% halogen combined with Al2O3.

Demetallisation of Heavy Petroleum Oils


esso research & engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,154,480

Metallic impurities are removed from petroleum residues boiling at 900-1500°F by contacting them with finely divided Pt/Al2O3 catalyst, subjecting them at 200-600°F to high energy ionising radiation followed by separation of the catalyst on which the metallic impurities have been adsorbed.

Production of 5-Aminofurans


the norwich pharmacal co. U.S. Patent 3,154,543

Catalytic hydrogenation of a nitrofuran in the presence of a solvent comprising CH3COOC2H6 and absolute C2H5OH in a 3:1 volume ratio and a catalyst consisting of charcoal supporting 5 wt.% Pd, if carried out at 2-3 atm, yields the corresponding 5-aminofurans.

Reduction Catalysts


imperial chemical industries ltd. U.S. Patent 3,154,584

Diaminotoluenes are produced by reducing dinitrotoluenes with H2 in the presence of 15-150 p.p.m. Pt or Pd catalyst and carrying out the reduction in H2O/C2H6OH mixture at 110-I40°C and 1-10 atm.

Oxidation of Olefines


farbwerke hoechst a.g. U.S. Patent 3,154,586

Olefines are converted to carbonyl compounds by contacting them at 50-160°C and a pH of 0.5-6 with O2 and a liquid catalyst system comprising H2O, a Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or Ir salt and a redox system containing a metal showing several valencies under these reaction conditions.

Reforming Catalysts


socony mobil oil co. inc. U.S. Patent 3,155,605

Naphtha fractions are reformed catalytically by fractionating them to concentrate substantially all alkyl cyclopentones in the lower naphtha fraction and reforming this fraction in the usual conditions in the presence of a steamed Pt/Al2O3 catalyst and 0.001-0.7 wt.% S.

Catalytic Igniters


general electric co., new york U.S. Patent 3,156,094

A catalytic ignition system incorporated into turbojet thrust augmentors utilises a flow permeable Pt or Pt alloy disc and a metering disc dynamically loaded against the catalyst element.

Dehydrogenation Catalysts


shell oil co. U.S. Patent 3,156,735

Olefinic hydrocarbons are oxidatively dehydrogenated by contacting them at 400-550°C, in admixture with O2 with a catalyst comprising a low surface area solid support and 0. 05-5 wt.% Au and Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or Ir taken in a ratio of 0.2-25 atoms of Au per atom of the said noble metal.

Hydrocarbon Conversion Catalysts


california research corp. U.S. Patent 3,157,590

An improved isomerisation-cracking process for petroleum distillates utilises a Group VIII metal catalyst, preferably 0.1-1 wt.% Pt or PtO supported on an active SiO2-Al2O3 support.

Production of Cyclohexanone Oxime


e. i. du pont de nemours & co. U.S. Patent 3,157,702

Cyclohexanone oxime is produced by hydrogenating nitrocyclohexane in the presence of a 5% Pd/C2H2 black catalyst containing 1% of Mg promoter and Pb acetate in a 1:5 Pb:Pd ratio.

Isomerisation Catalysts


esso research & engineering co. U.S. Patent 3,158,662

5-6 C paraffins are isomerised by contact with a supported Pt catalyst containing 0.3-0.6 wt.% Pt and 5-15 wt.% AlCl3 at 200-400°F, 400-1500 p.s.i. and in the presence of H2

Hydrogenation Catalyst


abbott laboratories U.S. Patent 3,159,639

The hydrogenation of pyridylcarboxylic and pyridylalkanoic acids at 0-100°C, 1-1000 atm and in the presence of 0.5-5 wt.% Rh/C or Rh/Al2O3 catalyst will result in the formation of the corresponding piperidylcarboxylic and C-piperidylalkanoic acids.

Catalyst


general electric co. U.S. Patent 3,159,662

The (PtCl2-C3He)2 complex has been used as a catalyst in the production of organosilicon compounds by reacting aliphatically unsaturated compounds with those containing Si-H bonds.

Production of α-Acyloxy-propionaldehydes


ajtnomoto co. inc. French Patent 1,361,797

The reaction in a liquid phase at elevated temperatures and pressures between a vinyl ester of fatty acids and H2 and Co in the presence of a Rh catalyst yields α-acyloxy-propionaldehydes.

Precious Metal Hydrogenation Catalysts


shionogi & co ltd French Patent 1,361,980

Unsaturated morphinanes may be hydrogenated with H2 in the presence of Pt or Pd catalyst.

Glyoxal Production


badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. French Patent 1,363,089

Glyoxal is produced by reacting C2H4 at 0-100°C with 1-40 wt.% HNO3 and in the presence of 0.0001-1 wt.% Pd salt, preferably PdCl2 or Pd(NO3)2.

Hydrocracking Catalysts


shell internationale research mij. n.v. French Patent 1,364,001

A catalyst for the hydrocracking of hydrocarbon oils consists of a refractory oxide of 50-90 wt.% SiO2 and 10-50 wt.% Al2O4,part of which may be replaced by MgO2 or B2O3, carrying 0.1-20 wt.% Ag or Cu and 0.1-5 wt.% Pd, Rh, Ru or their mixtures.

Hydrogenation Catalysts


ste. d’electro-chimie, d’electro-metallurgie et des acieres electriques d’ugine French Patent 1,364,577

Methylamines are produced by the gaseous phase hydrogenation of HCN with H2 at elevated pressure, below 250°C and in the presence of a refractory metal oxide-supported Group VIII noble metal, preferably Pd or Pt.

Hydroforming Catalysts


imperial chemical industries ltd. French Patent 1,365,520

Gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons are hydroformed at 550-750°C above 7 kg/cm2 and in the presence of 1. 3-5.5 moles H2O, H2 and 0.1-0.5 wt.% of a refractory oxide-supported Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Os or Ir catalyst.

Isomerisation Catalysts


the british petroleum co. ltd. French Patent 1,365,885

Ethylenic hydrocarbons are produced by the isomerisation of ethylenic hydrocarbon mixtures in the presence of a catalyst comprising a complex of a Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru or Ir halide and the ethylenic hydrocarbon, at elevated temperature and pressure.

Production of Organosilicon Compounds


compagnie française thomson-houston French Patent 1,366,279

Organosilicon compounds are produced by contacting an aliphatic compound with an Si compound having at least one Si-H bond in the presence of an Rh catalyst produced by reacting RhCl3. 3H2O with compounds capable of giving an olefinic, carboxylate or substituted organoxy complex of Rh.

Production of Alkyl Aromatic Compounds


bataafsche petroleum mij. n.v. German Patent 1,178,065

Diaryl alkanes are converted to alkyl aromatic compounds by heating at 300-600°C in the presence of a refractory metal oxide catalyst and also a Pt or Pd dehydrogenation catalyst.

Beta-chloroalkyl Chloroformate Production


badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. German Patent 1,179,922

The reaction of 1,2-alkylene oxides with phosgene in the vapour phase is catalysed by a Group VIII metal chloride on a support, e.g. Rh C13/Al2O3.

Production of Vinyl Carboxylates


nippon gosei k.k.k.k. German Patent 1,179,928

The reaction of C2H4, O2 and carboxylic acid to produce vinyl acetate and higher homologues is catalysed by a mixture of a Pd, Rh or Pt salt and a Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe or Ni salt.

Removal of Formic Acid from 2-8C Fatty Acids


shell internationale research mij. German Patent 1,180,360

HCOOH is removed from 2-8C saturated fatty acids by vapour phase degradation at 80-220°C using a catalyst consisting of 0.05-5 wt.% Pt/ Al2O3 with a neutral surface and a specific area of 20-400 m2/g.

Production of Adipodinitrile


e. i. du pont de nemours & co. German Patent 1,181,197

Adipodinitrile is produced by the hydrogenative scission of 1,2-dicyanocyclobutane in the presence of Pt or Rh catalyst.

Partial Diene Hydrogenation


badische anilin- & soda-fabrik a.g. German Patent 1,181,700

Cyclic compounds with at least two double bonds are reduced to cyclo-olefines by molecular H in the presence of a Pd catalyst poisoned by Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd, Hg, Th, Pb, Sb, Fe, etc.

Catalyst


socony mobil oil co, German Patent 1, 183, 480

Mixtures of various Al2O3, 3H2O are impregnated with a Pt compound to give 0.01-5 wt.% Ft in the final compound and HNO3 and then dried and calcined.

Olefine Oxidation


farbwerkb hobchst a.g. German Patent 1,183,488

The oxidation of defines to aldehydes and /or ketones is catalysed by a Cu salt catalyst activated with a Pd salt with a Cu:Pd ratio of 50-500:1.

Reforming of Naphtha


esso research & engineering co. Dutch Application 208,826

Pt/Al2O3 catalyst is used in treating high S, high boiling naphtha in a multiple zone reformation process.

Hydrogénation of Tetracycline Precursors


american cyanamid co. Dutch Application 226,460

A supported Pd catalyst is used in the production of tetracyline by catalytic hydrogenation.

η-Caprolactam Production


teijen ltd. Dutch Application 64.02,303

The caprolactam is produced from η-caprolactone, η-hydroxycapronamide or amides of η-hydroxycaproic acid by reaction with NH3, in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, e.g. Pt/C or Pd/C. (See also No. 64. 02, 312).

Hydrogenation of Hydrocarbons


u.s. rubber co. Dutch Application 64.02,424

Organic compounds, such as heterocyclic compounds, are hydrogenated non-destructively using a Pt metal sulphide catalyst with H2.

Reforming Catalyst


universal oil products co. Dutch Application 64.03,228

A catalyst consists of a noble metal deposited on a refractory oxide, e.g. Pt/Al2O3, which has been modified with 0.05-1.5 wt.% S.

Selective Hydrogenation of Trienes


j. r. geigy a.g. Dutch Application 64.04,143

Pd catalysts can be used for selective hydrogenation when they are used in the presence of a cyclic compound source of H.

Production of Organic Isocyanates


american cyanamid co. Dutch Application 64.10,490

Organic nitro compounds are reacted with CO in the presence of a noble metal catalyst, e.g. PdCl2, to form organic isocyanates.

FUEL CELLS


Fuel Cells


leesona corp. British Patent 975,314

Electrodes for fuel cells are made by forming an electrode structure by bonding a layer of zeolite to a ceramic structure or a zeolite layer of different pore size, ion-exchanging the naturally occurring ions of the zeolite for Pt, Pd, Rh ions and heating the composite at 600-1000°C to stabilise it.

Fuel Cells


esso research and engineering co. British Patent 976,796

A fuel cell suitable for use with liquid combustible fuels comprises an electrolyte container, an aqueous electrolyte and an electrode assembly consisting of Pt coated wire screen anode and cathode placed 0-001-1.0 mm away on each side of a 10-80% porous membrane with a 5-50Å pore.

Hydrogen Diffusion Electrodes


leesona corp. U.S. Patent 3,148,089

Fuel cells utilise fuel electrodes in the form of H diffusion tubes constructed of Pd or Pd/Ag alloys containing 5-40 wt.% Ag.

Fuel Cell Electrodes


ionics inc. U.S. Patent 3,152,014

A fuel cell consisting of a pair of spaced porous electrodes each of which is in contact with an ion-permeable membrane uses as both oxidant and fuel electrodes a porous C impregnated with Pt or preferably a porous structure activated by Rh, Pt, Ir or Pd.

Palladium Electrode for Fuel Cells


institut francais du petrole, des carburants et lubrifiants French Patent 1,368,109

An electrode for fuel cells operating at 150-300°C is constituted by a thin Pd foil of practically negligible porosity yet permeable to H.

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


Multi-junction Thermocouples


g. s. bachman British Patent 974,070

Multi-junction thermocouple suitable for refractory furnaces utilises wires of Pt used in conjunction with Pt-Ir or Pt-Rh alloy wires arranged so that, when part of the junction wire is eroded, the Pd wire or strip, placed between the junction wires, melts and provides a new hot junction.

Electrical Resistance Elements


johnson, matthey & co. ltd. British Patent 981,807

Electrical resistance elements suitable for use as heater elements or as thermocouple elements consist of a sintered refractory ceramic material core and a Pt group metal or its alloy as the external layer which will not alloy with the ceramic at the operating temperature.

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